Universal Access/Service    
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Universal Access:
The right of any person or organization to sipply programs and content services by the lease of time/space or services for any lawful purpose at non-discriminatory terms.

Universal Service:
The technical connection of every residence, institution, and business establishment at minimal or fair cost.

Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress.
Background Information
Featured Topics
FCC's Final Report & Order on Closed Captioning
Excerpts of the Telecommunications Act regarding disability
Full Copy of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, PL 104-652
FCC Report To Congress On Universal Service
FCC Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Access
Access Charges
Electronic Commerce
Digital TV
Electronic Democracy
Internet Telephony
Microsoft Legal Battle
Privacy & Cryptography
Telco Competition Issues
Universal Access/Service
Year 2000 (Y2K)

  Associations & Institutions      
  Trace Research & Development Center
Connecting Each to All: A Telecommunications Platform for the Information Age.

  Government Resources      
  The Electronic & Information Technology Access Committee
The US Access Board
Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act Ammendments
Falling Through The Net: A Survey of the "Have Nots" in Rural and Urban America. NTIA
The Global Information Infrastructure: Agenda For Cooperation. NTIA
Competition Is The Key. Reed Hundt FCC Chairman
Reflections on the Sixtieth Anniversary of the Communications Act. Robert E. Allen
Federal Communications Law Journal published by the Indiana University School of Law - Bloomington and the Federal Communications Bar Association
Steps Toward a Global Information Infrastructure. Assistant Secretary of Commerce Larry Irving, Janet Hernandez, Wendy C. Chow
Deregulating the Second Republic. Commissioner Andrew C. Barrett.
Telecommunications and the Competitive Advantage of MassachusettsGovernor William F. Weld
The Evolution of Universal Service in TexasJohn B. Horrigan
Alaska Public Utilities Commission (APUC) Information
Universal Service in Vermont Peter Bluhm

  Universal Access to E-Mail: Feasibility and Societal Implications
Losing Ground Bit by Bit: Low-Income Communities in the Information Age. Susan M. Goslee
The New Definition of Universal Service. Kevin Taglang, Benton Foundation (kevint@benton.org)
The Next Generation of Universal Service: Discounts for Schools and Libraries. Kevin Taglang, Benton Foundation (kevint@benton.org)
The Next Generation of Universal Service: Recommendations of the Joint Board on Universal Service. Kevin Taglang, Benton Foundation (kevint@benton.org)
Universal Service: A Historical Perspective and Policies for the 21st Century. Mark Cooper
Summaries and Links to Comments Filed in Universal Service Proceeding.
Public Interest Advocates, Universal Service and the Telecommunications Act of 1996. Kevin Taglang, Benton Foundation (kevint@benton.org)
NetTrans Accounts: Reforming the Financial Support Structure for Universal Service in Telecommunications. Eli M. Noam
Universal Service and the Information Superhighway: Policy Briefing 1
Universal Service and the Information Superhighway: Policy Bulletin 1
Beyond Universal Service: Characteristics of Americans without Telephones 1980-1993. Jorge Reina Schement.
The Rural Challenge: Changing Requirements and Policy Options. Heather Hudson
Universal Service: Policy Options for the Future. Susan G. Hadden
Recovering Network Subsidies without Distortion. Michael A. Einhorn
Funding the Public Telecommunications Infrastructure. Bruce L. Egan & Steven Wildman
Breaking the Bottleneck and Sharing the Wealth: A Perspective on Universal Service Policy in an Era of Local Competition. Robert K. Lock, Jr.
A Framework for Managing Telecommunications Deregulation While Meeting Universal Service Goals. Barbara A. Cherry, Steven S. Wildman
An Outline for Organizing Universal Service Proposals. Marlin Blizinsky
Universal Service: The Stakeholder Response. James C. Smith
Universal Service: The Stakeholder Response. Dr. Michael D. Pelcovits
The Social Architecture of Community Computing. Allen W. Batteau
The Local Government Perspective: Can the Harmonica Play in the Symphony? Brenda J. Trainor Manager, Regional Telecommunications Clark County, Nevada
Transcending Access Toward a New Universal Service. Jorge Reina Schement, Rebecca R. Pressman, Laurance Povich
Universal Service in Vermont. Peter Bluhm
Universal Service: Prosaic Motives and Great Ideals. Harmeet Sawhney
Implementing Universal Service After the 1996 Telecommunications Act.
"Universal Service" and the new Telecommunications Act: Mythology Made Law. Milton Mueller
NTIA Conference on the Future of the Net. Ronda Hauben
Universal Access to E-Mail. RAND.
Reforms toward the Intellectually Creative Society of the 21st Century. Telecommunications Council
Universal Service from the Bottom Up. Dr. Milton Mueller & Dr. Jorge Reina Schement.
Connecting K-12 Schools to the NII: A Preliminary Assessment of Technology Models and Their Associated Costs. R. I. Rothstein
TeleRead. David H. Rothman
Europe and the Global Information Society. Recommendations to the European Council
A Japanese Perspective on the Significance of the Information Revolution. Shumpei Kumon
Green Paper on Telecommunications Policy in South Africa
Access and Universal Service on the Information Highway
Defining and Maintaining Universal Access to Basic Network Services: Canadian Experiences in an International Context.
Universal Service and Information Poverty: a new look at an old problem. Brennon M. Martin
Latinos in the Age of Information
Latinos & Technology
From Wires To Waves. George Gilder
Mike Milken and Two Trillion Dollar Opportunity. George Gilder
Technological Change, Market Structure, and Universal Service. Third Prize Winner, Graduate Student Paper Competition, Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, October 1994
The New Realities of the Communications MarketplaceRaymond W. Smith
Establish a Wireless Component of the National Information Infrastructure
White Paper: A Telecommunications Policy Framework for Internet Service Providers
In the Matter of Inquiry on Universal Service and Open Access Issues. Sharon Eisner Gillett
Technological Change, Market Structure, and Universal Service. Sharon Eisner Gillett
Promoting Competition in the Telecommunications Industry Through Legislative Reform.